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Why Hasen’t NASA sent More Missions To The Planet Mercury


Exploring Mercury

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If you have ever wondered about NASA’s exploring the planet Mercury, here is some good information.

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbit around the Sun takes 87.97 days, the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. It is named after the Roman deity Mercury, the messenger of the gods.

Why haven’t we been to Mercury as often as we have to other inner planets such as Mars and Venus?

Because Mercury is a speedy little Guy, close to a seriously powerful gravity well, that’s why.

A spacecraft trying to go to Mercury has to slow up—a lot—to reach the planet, which orbits the Sun every 88 days. But trying to “help you along” is the Sun itself, pulling a spacecraft even faster and off-course.

To get into orbit around Mercury means that you have to bring a lot more fuel than one can realistically bring to slow down from the speeds that your orbital path and the Sun have forced on your spacecraft.

You can even experience this problem through space simulator games such as Kerbal Space Program and its inner planet analogue, Moho. It takes a stupid amount of delta-V ( Differntial-Velosity ) to get to, and then slow down to reach it.

The early 1970s Mariner 10, the first fly-by spacecraft, made a series of fly-bys, using the planet Venus as a gravity assist, accelerating it to match speeds with the planet.


The MESSENGER spacecraft of the early 2000s became the first orbiter. It took several fly-bys of Earth, Venus and Mercury itself over seven years to work out a speed that allowed it to attain orbit.
Neither NASA spacecraft would’ve arrived at Mercury without the work of Giuseppe Colombo.

To honor his work, the third Mercury probe, a two-orbiters-in-one mission known as BepiColombo,

As Seen in picture to the left

is on its way to Mercury, launched in October 2018 and scheduled to arrive in 2025. It’s a mission by the European Space Agency and the Japanese space agency, JAXA.





On its seven-year journey, BepiColombo will use ion propulsion, a very weak but high-efficiency way to get around, to make very tiny changes over the fly-by slingshots for a remarkably easy orbital insertion using a small amount of conventional fuel.





What “WAR” did Jeff Wayne write music and songs for?

In 1978, Jeff Wayne released Jeff
Wayne’s Musical Version of The War of the Worlds
his musical adaptation of
H. G. Wells‘ science-fiction novel The
War of the Worlds

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“Time of Destruction.” By John C. Meyer

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The album was a double vinal album set, with color illustrations of scenes from the
story, and with the celebrated actor, Richard Burton as a reporter/narrator.

In the 1970’s, before starting to write “The Musical War of The Worlds,” Jeff
Wayne wrote approximately 3,000 advertising jingles which appeared on
television in the United Kingdom.

“Jeff Wayne’s Musical War of The Worlds,” uses narration and leitmotifs
to carry the story, and rhyming melodic lyrics that express the feelings of the
various characters.

The two-disc album remains a bestseller, having sold 15 million copies worldwide as
a Vinal 2 disk set, and as a Compact Disk (CD).

In 2018, it was named the 32nd best-selling studio album of all time in the UK. It
has spawned multiple versions including video games, DVDs, and live tours.

In 2006, Wayne’s musical became a touring stage play called Jeff Wayne’s Musical
War of The Worlds – ALIVE, with Burton again as the newspaper
reporter/narrator, but since Burton had died before the traveling tour started,
image of Burton was projected on a screen on the back of the stage with the voice of Burton as narrator. The tour continued for several years, and in several countries.

In 2016, a new production of the touring stage play, called “Jeff Wayne’s War of
The Worlds: The New Generation,” began touring.

Liam Neeson played the reporter/narrator part, with Neeson appearing as a hologram.

The “New Generation” stage play was filmed by Universal Studios, and Universal
filmed a short additional segment for the beginning of the film, of the “Martians planning an attack of Earth.”

Jeff Wayne Wikipedia:

Jeff Wayne’s Musical War of The Worlds:The New Generation, Universal pictures MOVIE:


Who is ths Amazing Sand artist named Ilana Yahav

Ilana Yahav always knew that her destiny was in art: painting, sculpting, and the plastic arts in general. And she has always sought new and

original ways of expressing the vast range of human emotions and feelings.

“The experience of direct contact with sand enthralled me already as a child.” Ilana recalls: “It was a happy childhood along the shores of the Mediterranean, which I would visit every day on my way to school. I would draw a personal story, a kind of living diary in the sand. I would draw quickly, trying to finish it all before the wave would come and wipe everything out. I was totally spellbound. I would stand and watch until the drawing disappeared, realizing that everything is transient and temporary…”

See below the Fabulous Shows that Ilana performs with sand and her Incredible artistic ability



You’ve Got A Friend by Ilana Yahav

Give peace A Chance by Ilana Yahav


R3HAB vs Vini Vici ft. Pangea & DEGO – Alive   by Ilana Yahav


What is this Mighty SATURN V Rocket?


The Saturn V rocket, is 18 meters taller than the Statue of Liberty, and 15 meters taller than the Big Ben clock tower. It was hard to miss, as it stood at Launch-Pad 39A at Cape Canaveral on July 16, 1969, ready to launch the Apollo 11 Astronauts the moon.




The restored Saturn V rocket, at The Johnson Space Center, is the only one of three remaining, to be comprised completely of stages built for spaceflight.

The Saturn V rocket is one of the most underappreciated aspects of the Apollo program, in the amount of time and effort that had to go into creating this mammoth rocket. The Saturn V rocket is truly massive, in both size and weight, and is still the most powerful rocket ever made by man.

The powerful Saturn V rocket is rolled onto Launch Pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center.




Saturn V rocket is shown lifting off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida.



The next stage of Americas Moon rocket is taking shape to dramatically reduce travel time in space and carry more on a single flight. The purpose of the new Moon rocket is to explore the Moon thoroughly and learn if we could reach it by 2028.

After announcing the formation of Space Force, Vice-President Pence, who chairs the newly resurrected National Space Council, said, “Apollo 11is the only event in the 20th century that stands a chance of being widely remembered in the 30th century.

Apollo 11 is the incredible story of how a nation forged the technology during the turbulent 1960s to slip humanity from the bonds of its native planet.

Today the Command Module of Apollo 11 is a relic from another age, 11,700 pounds of aluminum alloy, stainless steel and titanium, built in Downey, Calif.



Poppy Northcutts experience as the first woman involved in NASA’s Mission control, says that Apollo 11 is nothing short of awe-inspiring, and that, on this 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, it still has the capacity to teach, as well as astound.


CLICK Below for 1969 Poppy Northcutt interview:


Poppy Northcutt discusses her work in mission control, then later as Women’s Advocate and attorney:

Saturn V Wikipedia below;

Smithonian Air and Space Museum:

Forty-Two Years of Star Wars’ Wild Ride

On May 25, 1977, forty-two years ago, this year, Star Wars, was first released into theatres, That event was one of the defining moments in cinema history.

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For myself and many, many moviegoers, Star Wars, with its groundbreaking special effects and breathtaking action, catapulted our imaginations to an ancient distant galaxy filled with wonder and adventure.

During the past 42 years Star Wars and its continuing franchises have become very successful, but the movie itself had humble beginnings.

American director George Lucas, who was only a few years removed from the completion of his film studies at the University of Southern California, decided to put together the first drafts of Star Wars following the unexpected success of American Graffiti (1973), his movie about adolescent American life in the early 1960s.

TRIVIA: Box Office return for American Graffiti was $One-Hundred-Forty-Million on an investment of $777,000, by Universal Studios. That’s 175 times ROI


More TRIVIA: American Graffitti won 9 Golden Globe Awards, Including:
Best Motion Picture – Comedy or Musical
Best Actor – Richard Dreyfus
Best director – George Lucas


Lucas had presented his ideas for Star Wars to every major film studio, and then he presented it to Alan Ladd Jr., who had recently become President of Twentieth Century Fox.  Ladd was enthuiastic about the concept, and gave Lucas the go-ahead.


After Lucas wrote four drafts of the story for Star Wars—the second of which was called “gobbledygook” by fellow director and mentor Francis Ford Coppola—he settled on the shooting script in early 1976.


Some 18 months later the film was released.


Star Wars debuted on Wednesday, May 25, 1977, in fewer than 32 theaters, and eight more on Thursday and Friday, Star Wars Producer Gary Kurtz said in 2002, “That would be laughable today.” It immediately broke box office records, effectively becoming one of the first blockbuster films, and Fox accelerated plans to broaden its release. Lucas himself was not able to predict how successful Star Wars would be.

After visiting the set of the Steven Spielberg–directed Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Lucas was sure Close Encounters would outperform the yet-to-be-released Star Wars at the box office. Spielberg disagreed, and felt Lucas’s Star Wars would be the bigger hit. Lucas proposed they trade 2.5% of the profit on each other’s films; Spielberg took the trade, and still receives 2.5% of the profits from Star Wars.

No one had any idea Star Wars would be such a gigiantic hit. Star Wars Producer Gary Kurtz, first realized that Star Wars was a cultural phenomenon, when, on the day it opened, a caller on a radio talk show told him that he had already seen the film four times.

Fox initially had doubts if Star Wars would emerge successful. The Other Side of Midnight was supposed to be the studio’s big summer hit, while Lucas’ movie was considered the “B track” for theater owners nationwide.

Fearing that the film would fail, Lucas had made plans to be in Hawaii with his wife Marcia.

Having forgotten that the film would open that day, May 25, he spent most of Wednesday in a sound studio in Los Angeles. When Lucas went out for lunch with Marcia, they encountered a long line of people along the sidewalks leading to Mann’s Chinese Theatre, waiting to see Star Wars.

He was still skeptical of the film’s success despite enthusiastic reports from the President of Fox Studios, Alan Ladd Jr.

While in Hawaii, it was not until he watched Walter Cronkite discuss the gigantic crowds for Star Wars on the CBS Evening News that Lucas realized he had become very wealthy.

Francis Ford Coppola, who needed money to finish Apocalypse Now, sent a telegram to Lucas’s hotel asking for funding.
TRIVIA: Star Wars won 6 Oscars at the Academy Awards;
Best Art Direction — Set Decoration
Best Costume Design
Best Sound
Best Film Editing   by Marcia Lucas, George’s wife
Best Visual Effects
Best Origional Score   by  John Williams


Even technical crew members, such as model makers, were asked for autographs, and cast members became instant household names; when Harrison Ford visited a record store to buy an album, enthusiastic fans tore half his shirt off.

By now millions of people have seen Star Wars (later retitled Star Wars: Episode IV—A New Hope), a film about Luke Skywalker, a young man who finds himself embroiled in an interplanetary war between the authoritarian Galactic Empire and the Rebel Alliance.

During the first weekend of its original release, Star Wars was showing in only 43 movie theaters.

By the end of September, however, after glowing reviews bolstered by word of mouth drove people into the theaters, the demand was great enough to support widening the release to more than 1,000 screens.

CLICK “Link” Below for a video of news coverage of 1977 Star Wars Movie Premier

During that first release, the film took in more than $500 million worldwide, a great return for a project whose budget had been less than $10 million.

Since that day in May 1977, the Star Wars franchise has grown immensely. The original Star Wars was joined by a constellation of sequels (The Empire Strikes Back [1980], The Return of the Jedi [1983], The Force Awakens [2015], The Last Jedi [2017), The Return of Skywalker (2019), three prequels (The Phantom Menace [1999], Attack of the Clones [2002], and Revenge of the Sith [2005]), and two stand-alone films, Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (2016), and Solo: A Star Wars Story.

Star Wars film, Episode VII: The Force Awakens, reached One Billion Dollars in ticket sales in a record six days, beating Jurassic World, which took seven days to reach One Billion dollars in ticket sales.

Ticket sales from the films—along with profits from the sale of toys, books, videocassettes and DVDs, and other merchandise and licensing—have earned the Star Wars franchise more than $30 billion.



After all of the filming and editing for Star wars was done, Lucas brought in Stephen Speilberg and Bryan DePalma to critique the film.

They both sad that it was disjointed and made no sense.

Lucas and his editing team, which included his wife Marcia, rethought the film, and recut and rearranged the film, to create the cinematic classic it became.


Click below for the story of “How Star was saved in the editing.”

By Chris Taylor

By day six at the end of the Memorial Day weekend in 1977 Star Wars had brought in $2.5 million in ticket sales.

That did not technically make it the highest grossing movie in America. Smokey and the Bandit beat it with a take of $2.7 million.

But Smokey was showing on 386 screens and Star Wars was only showing on 43.

Lots of important people, such as Ted Kennedy and his wife stood in the long lines outside theatres.   Elvis Presley tried to get a print to screen it at Graceland, the day before he died.

Walter Cronkite did unprecedented coverage of Star Wars on his newscast.

Lucas and his wife Marcia had flown to Hawaii two days before the movie opened.   They both believed the movie was going to be a disaster. Cronkite’s newscast was the first that they heard that the movie was a huge success

Fox was an ailing company before Star Wars. The Stock shares were $13 a share before the release of Star Wars.   A month later it was $26 a share. 76% growth in a month.

Alan Ladd Jr’s salary At Fox went from $180,000 to $500,000, with the release of Star Wars.

Annual profit for Fox for 1977, $77 million was double the previous year’s annual profit.

In 1978 Kinner, the toy company, sold more than 42 million Star Wars items 22 million were action figures.

In 1977, the Fox fanfare had not been used for several years, but George Lucas insisted that it precede the beginning of the movie.

By 1985 they were more Star Wars figures on the planet than US citizens.

Before Star Wars, there had never been a movie merchandising campaign that made money. Star Wars was the very first.

The same holds true for spin off movies.   George Lucas’ negotiation for spinoffs and for merchandising was ignored by fox.  They gave him what he wanted in merchandising and spin-offs believing it would make no difference.

George Lucas was able to get an unprecedented deal for the merchandising and for the ownership of all spinoffs made from Star Wars.

In order to get ownership of all spinoffs made for Star Wars, George’s contract stipulated that he had to start the first spin off within two years of the release of Star Wars.   In other words by 1979, and he did.

Alan Lad junior and Fox had to negotiate with George Lucas to be able to make the sequels for Star Wars at Twentieth-Century Fox, since Lucas retained the rights to be able to make any sequels of Star Wars.

Lucas’ contract with Fox stated that he would get 25% of the first 20 million profit, 75% of the next 40 million in profit, and 90% of everything after that.

After the success of the first Star Wars movie, George Lucas began promoting the myth that He had actually written nine episodes and that he took the first of the middle three stories to film The first Star Wars movie.

Nothing could be further from the truth.  It was a laborious, constantly changing process to even get the first one written and off the ground and there were many, many, many changes in material.  Nothing else had been written before the first movie was made, but that myth promoted the movies.

More than $20 billion of merchandise sales of star wars merchandise have been made in the last 42 years   Even more than Barbie, even though Barbie had a 20 year head start on Star Wars.

Rancho Obi-Wan, a Museum run by one man, has over 300,000 Star Wars items.

There are more than 2000 models of Star Wars figures in the Hasbro toy line compared to little more than 300 in the Kenner toy line that existed when Hasbro bought Kenner.

George Lucas gave away 25% of his stake in Star Wars to actors and crew in the form of points.  Mark Hammel was getting $600,000 a year for a very long time from his points in Star Wars.

Shortly after filming began for the second Star Wars, filming fell behind schedule and the budget increased from $18,000,000 to $22,000,000.

George Lucas was financing this movie and didn’t know where the other money would come from.   During the Christmas season Kinner sold $200 million of the Star Wars merchandise allowing George Lucas to use some of the money from that to finish the movie.  If the merchandising hadn’t come to Lucas’s rescue the movie would’ve been shut down.

When the budget then ballooned to $31 million, the banks refused to loan Lucas money unless Lucas had Fox guarantee the loan.

Fox did not have to put up any money, Fox just agreed that if it were necessary they would pay it, and they got a bigger cut of the profits than previously agreed in their contract with Lucas.


That was the last thing that Lucas wanted, but he was stuck.

One of the reasons that George Lucas was making the second film, “The Empire Strikes Back,” is because he wanted to use the profits from the film to finance the building of Skywalker Ranch, a place where independent film makers could work on their movies.

As the costs of making “The Empire Strikes Back’ grew larger, Lucas began to fear that his “Skywalker Ranch” dream was not going to happen.

The only two characters who appear in all nine movies, other than the “StandAlone” films are C3PO and R2D2.

Around 1980, a fan named Alvin Johnson built a storm trooper uniform, and encouraged others to do the same.

He put together an organization of the Stormtroopers, and called it the five-hundred-first Stormtrooper Division.  The idea caught on fast, and spread far and wide until there were thousands of fans with realistic storm trooper costumes who marched in parades and were hired for events.

A fan named Chris Bartlet, A member of the five-hundred-first Storm Troopers, decided in 2001, he was going to build a Screen-Realistic C3PO costume.  He put a lot of effort into building the costume and watched the movies a lot so it would be accurate.  He spent a lot of time shaping and putting together the costume, and then he sent a picture of it to Lucas films telling them if they ever needed another C3PO costume, his would be available.

He never dreamed they would take him up on his offer.  He listened many, many times to Anthony Daniels speaking his dialogue so that he could get it exactly right.

LucasFilm called him and asked him to come out to Los Angeles and paid for his ticket.   When he got there Lucas film chromed the outfit and gave him a ticket to Australia where he promoted the next film, and got paid for it.

Lucasfilm even had Anthony Daniels coach him in the correct movements and speaking for C3PO.

Bartlet became the official Star Wars spokesman and gave many, many talks for events in the C3PO costume, including at the White House, in 2009, to take part in a Trick or Treat event.

After putting on their costumes in the basement of the west wing, he and the man dressed as Chewy took the elevator up to the second floor, stopping at the first, where Obama was waiting.

Obama asked if he could get on, then rode up with them where CHRIS introduced himself by saying, “I am C3PO, human cyborg, relations.”

Michelle Obama had specifically requested C3PO.  Several members of Obama’s staff were in other Star Wars consumes, showing that an obsession with Star Wars had found its way to the most powerful office in the world.

Bartlet has been Lucas Film’s special events C3PO SINCE 2001.  He is a member of the Screen Actor’s Guild.   He has appeared in Toyota and McDonalds commercials.  He has presented Samual L. Jackson with an award on the AMC cable channel.

Another group of fan fanatics started building R2D2s and other R2 units, despite not knowing the dimensions.   Many of them took ten years to build and cost as much as $12,000.

George Lucas visited one of the rooms at a convention where some of the R2D2 fanatics and their Astromecks were exhibited.   He asked what it cost to make them, and was told, “about  $8,000.”   George said that Lucasfilm had a company that had made them for Star Wars movies, and had charged him $80,000 for each R2D2.    He said that if he ever needed another one, he would contact them.    One of their R2D2’s was used in The Force Awakens.

Shortly after the prequel trilogy was completed, George Lucas began planning a series for television called “The Underworld”, about the dark side of the Star Wars universe.

The Underworld was eventually scrapped when it was estimated that the production cost for each episode, the way that George wanted it to be, would cost $11 million per episode.

Nov. 3, 2007 is the first time the Star Wars theme was broadcast to a space shuttle crew as a wake-up call.  Mission specialist Scott Curzensky, had named his son Luke, and later that day Scott talked to his son and said, in a Darth Vader voice, “Luke, I am your father, use the force, Luke.”

That same shuttle flight was carrying the light saber that Mark Hamel used in “Return of the Jedi,” Star Wars movie.  George Lucas was on site for the launch of that shuttle.

In 2011, the first planet orbiting 2 suns was discovered.  It received a technical name, but NASA named it Tatooine.


Gerard K. O’Neil: Dreamer, or Futureist?

In 1976 I became a member of the L-5 Society, an origination founded by Gerard O’Neil, a Physics professor at Princeton University.

The L-5 Society was the result of the enthusiastic response to an assignment O’Neil had given to his physics classes—

“To explore the possibilities of human settlement and industrial development on the Moon and in orbiting space colonies.”

A lot of the action of my novel “Time of Destruction,” tales place in one of these space colonies, which I call L-4, or The Lagrange Colony.


For   “A Unique, Time and Space Travel Adventure,”

         check out:           

“Time of Destruction.” By John C. Meyer

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Gerard O’Neill had three careers. As an experimental physicist, he invented and developed the technology of storage rings that is now the basis of all highenergy particle accelerators. As a teacher and writer, he explored the possibilities of human settlement and industrial development on the Moon and in orbiting space colonies.

As an entrepreneur, he founded several companies to develop new commercial technologies, ranging from a cheap satellite navigation system (Geostar) and a secure short-range office communication system to a high-speed train system.

In 1965 O’Neill became a full professor at Princeton, where he remained until his retirement in 1985.

He enjoyed teaching and devoted much of his time and energy to doing the job well.

In 1969 he was responsible for teaching Physics 103-104 the basic introductory physics courses.

He decided to reform the courses radically, replacing the traditional problem exercises with “learning guides,” which led the students step by-step to a deeper understanding of what they were doing.

At the end of the term, O’Neill asked the class to write a term paper about a human habitat in space, calculating the requirements of mass and energy and propulsion for a viable settlement.

The students responded enthusiastically to this.

After reading the term papers, O’Neill was infected with their enthusiasm and wrote a paper of his own, “The Colonization of Space,” which was published in 1974 in Physics Today.

Thereafter, space colonies remained one of his main interests. In 1978 he and his wife, Tasha, founded the Space Studies Institute, a privately funded organization that supports technical research on the science and engineering of space activities.

The institute successfully built a working model of a mass driver, a device invented by O’Neill for cheap and efficient movement of materials from the Moon or an asteroid into orbit.

O’Neill founded the Space Studies Institute with the intention of introducing a new style into the world of space technology.

His purpose was to organize small groups of people to develop the tools of space exploration independently of governments and to prove that private groups could get things done enormously cheaper and quicker than government bureaucracies.

To bring his vision of the free expansion of mankind into space to a wider public, O’Neill wrote books.

His first book, The High Frontier (William Morrow, 1977) has been translated into many languages. It established O’Neill as spokesman for the people in many countries who believe that the settlement of space can bring tremendous beneflts to humanity and that this is too important a business to be left in the hands of national governments.

Gerard K. O’Neill – Wikipedia’Neill


Gerard O’Neil Talks about space colonies:


Gerard O’Neil: On Space Habitat Design

Solar Power Art Set


Who is this genius named Carl Stalling?

Carl Stalling has never been a household name, but his music has been loved, although unconsciously as the music of “Warner Bros Cartons,” for the last eighty years.

For   “A Unique, Time and Space Travel Adventure,”

         check out:           

“Time of Destruction.” By John C. Meyer

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Carl Stalling: “Cartoon Music” Genius


One of the primary roles of the music in cartoons in the 1930’s to 1959, was to enhance the “comedic affect” of the story or gag.

Thus, the composer had to make it his or her business to make the music funny and, at the same time, still effective as a soundtrack.

Carl Stalling was, without a doubt, the most skilled and clever composer of cartoon music Hollywood ever had;

He not only created the scores to hundreds of Warner Bros. cartoons from 1936 to 1959, he essentially created the sound that most fans of animated shorts know as, simply, “cartoon music.” His unique style of using songs for background music that had some nominal relation to the subject at hand became his trademark.

it was not looked well upon at the time, but people today have realized just how important and influential these soundtracks have become in our society.

The modern cartoon, and especially the Hollywood cartoon from the Golden Age of Animation, relies so much on music that it is truly difficult to conceive what they might have been like without a soundtrack.

Click below for Carl Stalling Wikipedia:

Click the links below for examples of Carl’s music from the album:
“The Carl Stalling Project”
Warner Bros Music From 1936 to 1959


Porky in wackland

To itch his own

Speedy Gonzales

Carl Stalling and Mitt Franklyn ln session

Anxiety Montage

Music from Porkey’s Review

There they Go, Gi, Go

The Depression Era

Hillbilly Hare

A Studio session For:
Puddy Tat Trouble part 6


Would running the “Death Star,” bankrupt the “Empire?”

I found this article by David Z. Morris, published in 2016 by Fortune Magazine very amusing and statically fascinating.


 For   “A Unique, Time and Space Travel Adventure,”

check out:

“Time of Destruction.” By John C. Meyer

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The British energy supplier Ovo has put some very well-spent hours into a comprehensive calculation of the operating costs of the Death Star.

They conclude that operating the planet-destroying starbase would cost 6.2 octillion British pounds, or $7.8 octillion, per day—that’s $7,800,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000.

(See the Link at end of this post below, for a “Detailed Graphic” and article about, the Cost of Running the Death Star )

To put that absurdly large number in perspective, $7.8 octillion is more than 100 trillion times the $70 trillion annual global economic activity of Earth,

or 30 trillion times the roughly $200 trillion in wealth on our little blue planet.

Ovo’s analysis, conducted in collaboration with physics blogger Stephen Skolnick and Dartmouth mathematics Professor Alexander Barnett, approaches the granularity of a good business model (if your business is blowing up planets to intimidate a rebellious populace). A few of the highlighted line-items include,

about $52 billion per day for lighting, and $200 million per round of laundry.


But what really gets you is that darn laser, which would need a power source three million times more powerful than the sun to recharge, at a cost of nearly $8 octillion a pop. (Ovo isn’t clear on how often they assume the laser would be fired, but apparently it’s less than once per day).

You might think there’d be hope on the income side of the calculation, which Ovo didn’t tackle. Sure, $7.7 octillion is a lot of dollars for those of us confined to a single planet. But according to this expert Quora source, the Galactic Empire at its peak controlled 1.5 million core worlds and 69 million colonies, all knit together through a centrally-planned economy.

But even assuming all 70 million of those worlds are as productive as today’s Earth, their total annual output would still only be about 5-to-the-21st-power dollars, or a measly half-sextillion. The shortfall only gets worse when you limit the Imperial tax rate to a draconian-but-plausible 50%, and the Death Star’s share of the Imperial budget to the neighborhood of 70%—you’ve still got to pay for all those starships, after all.

And we’re still not even touching the thing’s absurd up-front costs, previously estimated at $852 quadrillion.
In other words, the Death Star would bankrupt the Imperial economy faster than it blew up Alderaan.
More likely, it would never see the light of day, as anything other than a woefully misguided pitch deck, endlessly forwarded between Galactic venture capitalists in need of a good laugh.


See below 101 Facts About The Death Star

Click below for” Detailed Graphic,” and article about, the Costs of Running the Death Star:




How did the Starship USS Enterprise get designed

I have always been a Star Trek fan from the very first episode that I saw of the TV series. The episode was, “Charlie X.” which was the second episode of the first season of the Origional series.

Star trek has millions of fans, but not all of them know the story of how the fabulous starship USS Entereprise was designed.

That is what I will be relating TODAY:

For   “A Unique, Time and Space Travel Adventure,”

check out:

“Time of Destruction.” By John C. Meyer

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When Gene Roddenberry received the “go ahead” in 1964 from Desilu Studios, to produce Star Trek, he was introduced to Matt Jefferies, a designer at Desilu, who was assigned by the studio to work with Gene to design a ship, the USS Enterprise, for the twenty-third century.

Jefferies had previously worked at Northrop, an aerospace company associated with NASA, and was also a pilot in World War II, like Gene.

Jefferies, was not a science fiction fan, and based his work on the concepts of Gene, who did not really know what he wanted The USS Enterprise to look like.

Jefferies original order from Roddenbery was for it not to look like “a conventional rocket or spacecraft currently appearing in sci-fi.”

Roddenberry’s design ideas included:

–No rockets and No Jets

–The engines should be well away from the people. That’s why the nacelles are stuck away from the body of the ship. (Roddenberry later munged this up by putting an engine room in the main body of the ship.)

–There should be multiple engines, as on an airplane, to provide redundancy.

–The bridge should be up at the top, like a pilot’s cockpit.

–There were two primary parts, the crew part and the engineering part. The engineers are belowdecks, while the crew is in the saucer-shaped section. (Which was originally going to be a sphere, spheres being so practical in space, but … well, it just looked weird.)

Roddenberry further specified that the Enterprise would operate mainly in space, have a crew of 100-150, and be incredibly fast. Both Jefferies and Roddenberry did not want the Enterprise to look like any of the rocket ships already used by the aerospace industry or in popular culture.

Jefferies initially rejected a disk-shaped component, believing it to be too simular to flying saucers, and designed a spherical module eventually flattened into a saucer.

Roddenberry was drawn to a sketch of the Enterprise resembling its final configuration. Jefferies had created a small model of this design that, when held from a string, showed the warp engines below the saucer, but Roddenberry turned it over, and it resembled the shape we know today.

The Enterprise was originally going to be named Yorktown, but Roddenberry said he was fascinated by the story of the actual Enterprise and that he had “always been proud of that ship and wanted to use the name.”

The ship’s NCC-1701 registry stems from NC being one of the international aircraft registration codes assigned to the United States. The second C was added because Soviet aircraft used Cs, and Jefferies believed a venture into space would be a joint operation by the United States and Russia. NCC is the Starfleet abbreviation for “Naval Construction Contract”, comparable to what the U.S. Navy would call a hull number. Jefferies rejected 3, 6, 8, and 9 as “too easily confused” on screen; he eventually reasoned the Enterprise was the first vessel of Starfleet’s 17th starship design, hence 1701.

The Making of Star Trek explains that USS means “United Space Ship” and that “Enterprise is a member of the Starship Class”. The ship was changed to Constitution class with the release of Franz Joseph’s Star Fleet Technical Manual in 1975.

Filming models

The first miniature built from Jefferies’ drawings was a four-inch scale model. Desilu Studios, which was producing Star Trek, hired experienced film and television modelmaker Richard C. Datin to make a pre-production model. Datin used a subcontractor with a large lathe for major subcomponents and otherwise worked on the model for about 110 hours in November 1964. The 33-inch (0.8 m) model was made mostly of pine, with Plexiglass and brass details. Datin made minor changes after Roddenberry’s review, and he submitted the completed, first filming model – which cost about $600 – to Desilu in December 1964.

Desilu then ordered a larger filming model, which Datin contracted to Volmer Johnson and Production Model Shop in Burbank. Datin supervised the model makers and did detail work on the model, which was constructed from plaster, sheet metal and wood. When completed, it was 11 feet 3.5 inches long, weighed 276 lb., and cost $6,000.

The filming model was delivered too late to be used much for the initial pilot, “The Cage“. The 11-foot model was initially filmed by Howard Anderson. When Roddenberry was approved to film the second pilot, “Where No Man Has Gone Before” (1966), various details of the 11-foot model were altered, and the starboard windows and running lights were internally illuminated. When the series went into production, the model was altered yet again, and the model was regularly modified throughout its active filming. Most of the fine details on the large model were not visible to television viewers.

Howard Anderson could not keep up with the filming and special effects needs for regular production, so producers hired several other studios to contribute effects and additional footage. Motion control equipment was too expensive, so the ship was filmed with stop motion. Filming was often delayed by the heat generated by the studio and model’s lights. Special effects were produced as cheaply as possible. Most third-season footage of the Enterprise was reused first- or second-season footage. Animators for Star Trek: The Animated Series (1973–75) rotoscoped Enterprise footage to recreate the ship’s movements, contributing to the impression of the animated series being a fourth season of the original. The animated medium could not support some of the ship’s lighter colors, so the Enterprise was depicted as a consistent gray.

For the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode “Trials and Tribble-ations” (1996), Greg Jein created a model exactly half the size of the original 11-foot Enterprise model, and it was the first production model of the starship to be built in more than 30 years. A CGI model of the ship makes a cameo appearance at the end of the Star Trek: Enterprise series finale, “These Are the Voyages…” (2005). Artists creating another CGI version of the Enterprise for the remastered television show had to ensure the model was not so detailed that it was incongruous with the overall 1960s production.

Sets, sounds and fixtures

The Enterprise was meant to serve as a familiar, recurring setting, similar to Dodge City in Gunsmoke and Blair General Hospital in Dr. Kildare. Reusing sets also helped address Desilu’s budget concerns. As production continued, standing sets like the engine room and bridge became increasingly detailed. The bridge was monochromatic for “The Cage”, but it was redecorated for “Where No Man Has Gone Before” because of the increasing popularity of color televisions. Roddenberry described the ship’s hallways as “Des Moines Holiday Inn Style”. The ship’s chairs were manufactured by Burke of Dallas and similar to the original tulip chair designed by Eero Saarinen. Full interior deck plans of the Enterprise were designed by Franz Joseph in 1974, with approval from Roddenberry. At Roddenberry’s direction, sound effects designer Douglas Grindstaff created different sounds for different parts of the vessel. Console sound effects were often created with a Hammond electric organ or other musical instrument, and engine sounds were created in part with a noisy air conditioner. Although the ship’s interior in The Animated Series was largely recreated from the live action series, a second set of turbolift doors was added to the bridge in response to Roddenberry being asked, “What do they do if the doors get stuck?”

The Enterprise bridge was partially recreated for the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode “Relics” (1992). The original set had long been torn down, and producers initially planned to use the film-era set. Ultimately, the engineering console, props and recreations of the captain’s chair and navigation console were rented from fans, and the rest filled in with archival footage and greenscreen technology. Both the exterior and interiors of the Enterprise were created for the Deep Space Nine episode “Trials and Tribble-ations” four years later. As with “Relics”, the bridge was partially recreated and other parts were added digitally. Mike Okuda used a computer to recreate the graphics seen on the Enterprise sets, and others were drawn by artist Doug Drexler. Set designer Laura Richarz’s biggest challenge was finding Burke chairs to populate the ship; she found a single one, and from that the production team made molds to create more.

Below are links to more information about Gene Roddenberry and About the starship USS Enterprise

Gene Roddenberry – Wikipedia

Starship USS Enterprise LINK BELOW


Why Are Their “Mirrors On The MOON?”

Picture to the Left is the Apollo 11 Lunar Laser Ranging Mirror


Many unbelievers have tried to discredit the fact that the U. S. Made several missions to the Moon, But the following information proves that we did:


For   “A Unique, Time and Space Travel Adventure,”
check out:
“Time of Destruction.”
By John C. Meyer
Go to


MIRRORS ON THE MOON, A Lunar Laser Ranging experiment:


Ringed by footprints, sitting in the moondust, lies a 2-foot wide panel studded with 100 mirrors pointing at Earth:

the “lunar laser ranging retroreflector array.”

Apollo 11 astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong put it there on July 21, 1969, about an hour before the end of their final moonwalk.

The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging experiment or Apollo landing mirror measures the distance between surfaces of Earth and the Moon using laser ranging. Lasers at observatories on Earth are aimed at retroreflectors planted on the Moon during the Apollo program (11, 14, and 15).

Laser light pulses are transmitted and reflected back to Earth, and the round-trip duration is measured.

This could not have been possible if the Apollo astronauts had not placed the mirrors on the moon surface.



Click below for explanation of RetroReflector Mirrors on the MOON



Click below for more lunar laser ranging retroreflector array Info: